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“Many, like beasts, pursue their studies with a great deal of physical effort, and without the skillful exercise of their intellects. Their bodies are worn out from lack of sleep, and all their efforts are unprofitable. This method, however, is a proper and easy way for a virtuous student to attain the treasury of knowledge.”—Ramon Lull (1308)

 Great! How does it work? As Wolfgang Wildgen sums it, lexica “are arranged in a linear order with (normally) nine segments. Every concept has two neighbours, and by adding specific figures (triangles, squares, etc.) one can join three, four, etc. concepts to create a sub­-network. The concepts of any area of knowledge may be organized into a set of such nine­-tuple fields.” Gottfried Leibniz and Isaac Newton both discovered aspects of The Calculus in Lull’s schemas; while they took his symbolic notations, they left his phenomenal figures. Nevertheless, both engage functional modules distributed throughout the nervous system; as Lull surmised, avant modern neuroscience, a well­-formed diagram binds disparate data together to convey more information with less effort.

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fig.11—different differences: neither either/or nor neither/nor.

“The great difference between percepts and concepts is that percepts are continuous and concepts are discrete. Not discrete in their being, for conception as an act is part of the flux of feeling, but discrete from each other in their several meanings. [...] The perceptual flux as such, on the contrary, means nothing [... but] contains innumerable aspects and characters which conception can pick out, isolate, and thereafter always intend.”—William James, 1911

 You can cross­-reference thoughts with their thinkers in stacked Mind Models: in fig.11 we track ‘inside/out’ from Lull, to Leibniz, to James, to Wittgenstein (1953): “The concept of the ‘inner picture’ is misleading, for this concept uses the ‘outer picture’ as a model. [...] The inner is tied up with the outer not only empirically, but also logically.” By tracing a writer’s steps (i.e. “segments”) through semantic fields you can track the movement of their minds; by following both, questions yield not ‘the right answer’ but the range of thought. 

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